There are many possible causes of dizziness, some of which may be medical emergencies like after significant head trauma. Some of the more common presentations are due to dysfunction of the structures which control balance such as the vestibular apparatus and the joints and muscle of the neck.

Usually patients report several episodes of dizziness that lasts for seconds to several minutes and are triggered by particular movements of the head or neck. Severity is variable with some able to notice vertigo and function almost as normal, while others may wake up with vertigo, notice it while trying to sit up suddenly or with the neck in extension looking up.

Dizziness can be the result of poor neck posture or occupational stresses which cause aberrant information regarding head and neck position to be sent to the brain, which in turn creates a sense of dizziness.